Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Workplace Bullying And Effective And Ineffective...

Forty-nine percent of all American workers have reported that they have been affected by workplace bullying, whether they were the target or the witness (2). The nursing profession is no exception to this startling statistic. Both the American Nurses Association (ANA) and The Joint Commission (TJC) have addressed the need for a positive work environment that is â€Å"free of abusive behavior, such as bullying, hostility, abuse of authority, and reprisal for identifying abuse in the workplace† (8). Bullying in nursing is thought to begin during undergraduate education and extend into the workplace after graduation (3), with new nurses being suffering the most (6). With the prevalence of those who have been bullied in the workplace, it is safe to say that a nurse or nursing student will be the target of this type of violence at some point in their career (3). The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of workplace bullying specific to nursing, effective and ineffecti ve management strategies to confront this problem, and the potential barriers to addressing the situation. Bullying behaviors are defined as being â€Å"systematized, targeted, relentless, and long-term† (5). To be classified as bullying it has to be a repeated behavior that escalates over time and involves a target that is structurally unable to protect or defend his or herself (5). There are many different types of bullying that can occur in a nursing environment. 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In fact it is so serious that â€Å"violence in the workplace in recent years has grown to be the second leading cause of death in the workplace† (Baron, Hoffman, Merrill, 2000). Responding to this epidemic will take a tailored dynamic approach that must be embraced by employees and management alike. 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The norm of verbal abuse, name-calling, and yelling at employees and coworkers will require team-building exercises, workshops and training programs to address the issue. The stress level is high in the engineering departmentRead MoreHealth Of Mental Health Promotion Programs2001 Words   |  9 PagesThe review will critically evaluate approaches implemented to promote mental health in the workplace by exploring evidence of effective strategies, additionally discussing challenges, limitations and gaps in literature. Based on this, the review will conclude that despite giving a deep understanding on the efficacy of mental health promotion programs in the workplace, there are still gaps in research that need to be addressed, leading to more questions than answers and therefore identifying opportunities

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dr. Martin Luther King s Leadership Essay - 2136 Words

M A R T I N L U T H E R K I N G J R . Enujuba Jasper Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 3 BACKGROUND 3 Bus Boycott in Montgomery 4 LEADERSHIP STYLE 5 King’s Leadership type 5 King’s Leadership Models 5 INFLUENCE IN THE ARTS 6 CONCLUSION 7 REFERENCES 8 INTRODUCTION Only a few of many leaders in history have been known as being great and living by example, as their actions and accomplishments have positively affected their intimate society or even the world. Dr. Martin Luther King in my opinion is one of these few leaders. Martin Luther King’s addition to history has put him in a special position that is not easy to replicate in today’s world. Martin Luther King always preached in opposition to hate and anger and was often quoted saying, â€Å"There is another way†¦ as modern as Gandhi saying through Thoreau, that ‘non‑cooperation with evil is as much a moral obligation as is cooperation with good.’† (Forbes.com, 2014) Throughout the life of Martin Luther king he read writings from Ghandi and quoted his messages that were applicable to the given situation at the time. Ghandi, a great leader, was one of the many positive influences King had in his life. Being one of the greatest figures in human hist ory just like Gandhi before him, Martin Luther King Jr. lived a heroic and exemplary life that very assertive and courageous, but at the same time, none violent and peaceful. Since the death of Martin Luther King, his influence is what hasShow MoreRelatedDr. Martin Luther King s Leadership875 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The word leadership brings to mind a variety of thought processes. 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Analysis of SME Sector KSA

Question: Analysing challenges for Seeking Investment from Saudi Financial Markets and possible solutions: Analysis of SME Sector KSA. Answer: Aims/Objectives/Research Questions The investment plays an integral part in boosting up the levels of an economy that is why the countries possess strong financial market policies. From the perspective of SME's, it can be said that, due to their smaller size, such organisations require a higher amount of investment and hence, rely on the financial markets of their regions. Similarly, in the case of SME entrepreneurs located in KSA. Financial markets of the country play a crucial role in driving the economy of the country. Government and financial institutions found in the region are the primary entities that encourage and hence, create an attractive environment for investors. It has been observed that the SME's contributes to the total investment in the country and therefore, KSA still experience this aspect. The aim of the current study revolves around the fact that the analyst seeks to challenge faced by SME entrepreneurs in seeking finances and credits for their businesses from financial institutions that have been located in the region of KSA. Moreover, the aim of the study has been supported by the point that the investigator also wants to suggest the solutions as well as opportunities to overcome the challenges that have been encountered. However, the proposed study seeks to contemplate and will be highlighting the challenges that are being faced by SME's in KSA, to exemplify the reasons that enable these SME's to meet particular challenges. Due to the last cause, the investigator has considered the SME sector located in KSA. Research Objectives Similarly, there are some of the objectives that have been created by the analyst, to accomplish the aim of the study. However, the goals that have been formulated and will be followed in the proposed study are mentioned below: To examine the concept of investment from the perspective of KSA To highlight the investment-related challenges for SME entrepreneursfunctioning in KSA To exemplify the contribution that has been made by the financial markets in KSA towards the SME sector financing To provide solutions and recommendations regarding the challenges that have been faced by SME's in KSA Research Questions It has been observed that the aims of the study become the basis for research objectives, and to develop the research questions, an analyst contemplates the propositions of the research study. The research questions that will be followed in the proposed research study are mentioned below: What are the challenges that are faced by SME entrepreneurs in KSA on financial markets? Is the financial market of KSA one of the entities that seek to contribute to the betterment of the SME sector of KSA? What are the challenges faced by the SMEs as well as the solutions that can be contemplated in resolving the issue? What recommendations are being offered to the managerial staff of the SME entrepreneurs to overcome the challenges that have been faced by them? Methodology This section of the research proposal highlights the methodology that will be followed by the analyst when the study will be conducted. Through this section, the analyst seeks to highlight the research approach, design, types of data that will be collected, sampling techniques as well as the analysis of the gathered data. The methodology that has been proposed is discussed below: Research Approach The two of the research approaches that are being followed by the analyst includes inductive and deductive approach. Both methods are used and selected by the topic that is under consideration. Moreover, Kothari (2011) explained that qualitative studies usually follows inductive as the method of the study, whereas, a deductive approach is being followed by the analyst when the aim is to gather quantitative data and to test the hypothetical assumptions. For the proposed study, it can be mentioned that the survey will be inductive as the research approach. The reason due to which this has been selected is that the analyst wants to accumulate purely qualitative data via conducting interviews as well as interpreting the data from financial markets. Research Design There are two types of research design, named explanatory and exploratory. The design of the study that will be followed in the proposed research study is graphic because the analyst will be accumulating the data that is presented in the everyday environment. The analyst will be exemplifying the variables that are found in the environment and hence, the data of the financial markets will be gathered, that will be interpreted and explained by the investigator. Types of data Two types of data are usually accumulated by the analyst including primary and secondary data. The study that will be conducted seeks to gather qualitative data that will be collected by the survey as well as from secondary sources (Seoudi and Mahmoud 2016). It can be said that secondary data will be collected from the financial markets of KSA. The institutions that will be considered for secondary research purposes include the banks as well as other financial institutions. The primary data will be interviewed, and hence, for the purpose of secondary data, the analyst will be accumulating the views of various scholars as well, so that an in-depth study can be contemplated. Sampling Technique As far as the sampling techniques that are used by the analyst are concerned it can be said that there are two types of sampling methods, named, probability and non-probability sampling technique. Most commonly used sampling method is the non-probability one that helps the analyst assuming that all the participants are offered equal chances of being selected. The reason due which probability sampling method has not been contemplated is that the researcher cannot provide an equal chance of being selected, but in non-probability sampling, this aspect can be assumed. For the proposed study, non-probability sampling will be appropriate as interviews will be conducted, and this is the most significant. Sample Size Same size is the number of people that have been made part of the research study (Seoudi and Mahmoud 2016). For the proposed study, it can be assumed that the interview conduction will be the second phase, of the study that involves interviewing 5-10 SME entrepreneurs to know about the investment challenges that are being faced. They will also be inquired to highlight their opinion of the industry and possible solutions for challenges faced by entrepreneurs Data Analysis As far as the analysis of the data is concerned, it can be enlightened that the investigator wants to present the data in the form of graphs, tables and analysis. As it has been mentioned that the study will be involving two of the phases, which includes the accumulation and interpretation of secondary data, and the second phase will be related to the analysis of the interviews that will be conducted by the entrepreneurs. Moreover, it can be said that the interviews will be analysed with the help of ethnographic content and interview transcripts will be prepared that will be including the responses of the entrepreneurs. Brief Literature Review: To unlock the growing potential of Saudi Arabia, SME's of the regions are considered as the core of doing so. It can be deliberated that SME's in Saudi Arabia can be viewed as those entities that will be offering employment opportunities to the growing population that will improvise productivity and will eventually help in diversifying the economy (Bahaddad et al. 2013). They possess the firm footing on the Kingdom and hence make up around 90% of the overall business, despite the fact; their contribution to the GDP of the country is flat. Challenges faced by SME's in Saudi Arabia One of the largest economies that will be contemplated regarding GCC is Saudi Arabia. Since the last eight years, the country is experiencing an increase in the budget from $69 billion to $170 billion. Despite the rise in the budget, the SME's only account for 25% to total employment and just 33% of the GDP of the country. This is in stark when compared to other most developed countries. For instance, in Spain, the total contribution made by SME's to the GDP of the country makes a total of 64.3% whereas, in Austria, SME's contribute about 44% to the GDP. Moreover, it can be illustrated that given the size as well as the growth of the country, and the focus of the nation on economic diversification, it can be said that SME's are liable to contribute around more than 50% to the GDP of the country (Capital Group Int 2015). To exemplify the challenges that are being faced by the SME's in the Kingdom, it can be explicated that these challenges have become the cause of hindrance, and limit the ability of the SME's to be competitive and sustain their market share. The limited support services available, as well as financing programs that help the SME's in experiencing their economic growth, has been a short life for those located in the Kingdom, that have made an average life of SME, of less than seven years. According to Capital Group Int (2015), one of the significant challenges that is being faced by SME's is their inability to capital accessibility, including debts and equity, which plays a crucial role in the development stage. Equity investment is critical for the survival of venture, especially when it's new and seeks for development. On the other hand, Kothari (2011) explained that in KSA, there is a dearth of capital for ventures and lack of investors' fund that are necessary to be offered to the young companies located in various sectors of KSA. On the contrary, from the perspective of banks, it can be enlightened that less than 2% of the total lending goes to the SME's, which in comparison is 14% than other non-GCC countries. Regardless the size of the sector, it can be highlighted that the financiers in the KSA seek to avoid lending to the SME's, for which there are some reasons. In the view of Bahaddad et al. (2013) it can be explained that there is a lack of reliable information about the SME's which is why the lenders are unable to contribute to their development. Similarly, as mentioned, it can be said that the SME's lacked the audited financials, and hence, they are large, unsophisticated on financing SME's. Thus, this all makes it essential for the financial institutions to invest greater time, as well as resources, to service them. Consequently, that will eventually increase the opportunity costs. This can either be in the form of charging premiums to the customers of SME's or overlooking them entirely. It can be explained that all the issues as mentioned earlier increase risks related to lending. It won't be feasible to illustrate the point that banks will not be lending large portfolios of their lending to SME's. Furthermore, in the view of AlGhamdi et al. (2012), there are other various challenges as well, which can be faced by the SME's, this includes lack of skilled workforce that will be contributing their efforts for the well-being of SME's. Technical field, lack of market information as well as bureaucratic red tape are also some of the reasons that can be contemplated in case of challenges faced by SME's. The potential for the SME's in Saudi Arabia has been recognised by the Saudi government and the private sector. They even have accepted the fact that there is a need for their support, in the form of capital. Moreover, it can be said that, in the region of Saudi Arabia, there is a greater number of private and public sector SME programs that are being carried in KSA. Moreo ver, it can be deliberated that the region of Saudi Arabia, an announcement of Ninth Economic Plan has been made that seeks to support SME's by offering specialised funds and financial institutions for lending credit to SME's (Christiansen 2013) The Importance of SME's According to Budhwar and Debrah (2013), SME's contribute to the growth of the country as well as creates the job, led to innovation and increased the international competitiveness. However, SME's are considered as the growth drivers of the country that leads to the economic diversification. Similarly, it can be said that SME's are regarded as the backbone of those economies that have been successful. It has been widely accepted that if the Gulf countries don't allow the SME's they won't be able to experience economic diversification, which is why; it has been deliberated that they play a significant role. Moreover, it can be explained that SME's should be offered with sufficient funds so that they can experience progress in their country and contribute to the GDP of their country. Resources you need/Access to primary and secondary data: It can be said that to gather the main data, the resources that are necessary for the analyst are limited. Foremost is the time that is the major source that the analyst will be utilizing to complete the research study within the given interval. Moreover, another resource that will be needed by the investigator includes the accessibility to the data of the financial markets that is to be included in the phase one of the research studies. The SME entrepreneur will be interviewed and to do so, the analyst needs to take permission as entrepreneurs have issues with accessing information, which is why; this is one of the causes of a hindrance that needs to be contemplated. Furthermore, it can be said that any of the procedure that will be followed in the research study, will be legal and prior permission would be taken for doing so. On the other hand, it can be enlightened that, for the collection of secondary data, the analyst will be utilising online sources, websites, journal articles as well as e-books will be reviewed that shed light on the investment challenges faced by SME's in KSA. On the contrary, for conducting interviews, the investigator will be developing a questionnaire that will consist of questions to be approached from the selected sample size. Prior permission will be taken by the analyst so that the respondents being interviewed are aware of what they have been contacted. The responses accumulated via interviews will be kept confidential, and none of the research participants will be forced to share their views. They will be offered complete freedom for sharing their opinions. Project Schedule Steps Description Due date 1 Preparation Stage Week -1-2: Area of interest identified January 1, 2016 Weeks 3-4: Topic selected/form submitted January 5, 2016 Weeks 4-5: Topic refined to develop dissertation proposal January 20, 2016 Weeks 5-8: Proposal written and submitted January 30, 2016 2 Chapters 1-3 completed Chapter 1 Draft Introduction completed July 1, 2016 Chapter 2 Draft Literature Review completed July 15, 2016 Chapter 3 Draft Research Methodology completed July 30, 2016 3 Collection of data and information Data analysis and Interpretation of data Aug 1 29, 2016 Chap 4 Draft Results, Analysis and Discussion completed Sep 20, 2016 Chapter 5 Draft Conclusions, Implications recommendations Oct 8, 2016 4 Final Writing up Structure, presentation and proofreading Nov 15, 2016 5 Final Stage Final proofreading, printing and binding Dec 15, 2016 6 Submission of Project (WOLF and hard copy submission) Jan 1, 2017 References AlGhamdi, R., Drew, S. and Al-Ghaith, W., 2012. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1211.2404. Al-Saleh, A. and Alsaleh, A., 2012. Exploring Strategies for Small and Medium Enterprises in Saudi Arabia. InPaper submitted to the 15th Research Institute for Business and Management Doctoral Symposium, Manchester Municipal University, Manchester, England. Alzalabani, A.H., 2015. Personality factors influencing entrepreneurial intention: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. ICIB 2014, p.210. Asad Sadi, M. and Henderson, J.C., 2011. Franchising and small medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in industrializing economies: A Saudi Arabian perspective.Journal of Management Development,30(4), pp.402-412. Azyabi, N. and Fisher, J., 2014. Exploration and Exploitation as Knowledge Management Strategic Approaches in Saudi Arabian SMEs. ACIS. Bahaddad, A.A., Houghton, L. and Drew, S., 2013. Attracting customer in Saudi Arabia to buy from your business online. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(7), p.p65. Baqadir, A.A., 2013. A skills gap between industrial education output and manufacturing industry labour needs in the private sector in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow). Budhwar, P.S. and Debrah, Y.A. eds., 2013. Human resource management in developing countries. Routledge. Capitas Group Int, (2015). [Online] Available at: https://www.capitasgroupintl.com/Commentaries/Commentary_ImprotanceSME_KSA.pdf [Accessed 15 Dec. 2015]. Christiansen, B. ed., 2013. Cultural and technological influences on global business. IGI Global. Christiansen, B. ed., 2013. Cultural and technological influences on global business. IGI Global. Kothari, C.R. (2011).Research methodology: methods and techniques. New Age International. Ramady, M., 2013. Gulf unemployment and government policies: Prospects for the Saudi labour quota or Nitaqat system. International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 5(4), pp.476-498. Seoudi, I. and Mahmoud, S., 2016. Public Policy For Venture Capital: A Comparative Study Of Emirates, Saudi Arabia And Egypt. Review of Business Finance Studies, 7(1), p.19. Shafi, M.M., 2015. Application of Islamic Economic Principles to Indian Financial Sectors: Prospects and Challenges. International Journal of Management, Innovation Entrepreneurial Research, 1(2), pp.37-42. Zamberi Ahmad, S., 2012. Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Problems and constraints. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 8(4), pp.217-232. Action Plan Skills My current skills My aim How will I achieve this Target date Academic writing and literature reviews:- Academic writing is defined by Randolph (2009) to be an evaluation process that requires careful demonstration of knowledge and provide the ability to think, interpret, and present related to a particular topic. Jarvis (2001) further emphasise on an understanding of the professor expectations. Cronin, et al. (2008) observes academic writing be a part of English writing for international students; however demands of academic writing can be very challenging for non-English speakers. Gonye, et al. (2012) highlights academic writing to include different writing standards, referencing and design. During my recent assignment, I faced a similar difficulty. I find academic writing not to be a new concept, however yet need to understand further the expectations of my professor to present better and improved work. Cronin, et al. (2008) describes a high-quality academic paper to provide detail understanding of the topic. My aim is to develop academic writing to present consistent and clear knowledge. After attempting my previous session in University, I came to understand many flaws. The assignment lacked detail knowledge and understanding of the topic. I may try to study and extract more information related to the topic for my upcoming works. Further, there are several guides available on the internet that may be helpful in understanding the concept of academic writing. Critical thinking and writing:- Strachan explains the main purpose behind academic writing to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject area. The critical writing was always understood by me to write the topic in a negative manner. According to Davies (2011) critical writing refers to covering every aspect of the subject area. I have noticed during my assignment that every scholar may have different views on one subject. I found myself not to focus a variety of concepts and opinions. Ata (2015) observes writers duty to show good awareness of the views. My aim is to understand the fundamental concept of critical writing so that I can present work that is according to the teachers expectations. Working on my previous assignment, I have experienced that I need more extensive reading on this topic. I may intend to do more research on available journals related to the subject area so that I may cover all the aspects of the problem. Data Collection Methods:- I am quite aware of data collection concept; however where I get confused is which method to select for data collection. I though questionnaire the best method for data collection. Kothari (2004) also considers questionnaires to be most flexible and convenient data collection technique; however recently I came to know that sampling is not always appropriate. There are other methods that are required to be chosen. Kothari (2004) emphasis on the appropriate selection of data collection method. I need to understand the use of alternative data collection method for the purpose of research. Bell (2014) highlights different methods of data collection. Those are interviews and focus group that allow the researcher to observe personally attitudes and behaviours of participants. I will look for books and articles that may elaborate use of data collection methods. Furthermore, I may observe research available on the internet and which data collection method has been used. Data analysis Methods:- Data analysis is necessary to summarise and conclude a research (Bell, 2014). However, I was aware of only few data analysis techniques previously, for example, percentage method. Kothari (2004) observe several data analysis techniques. My aim is to learn more data analysis techniques that might be more efficient. I also want to get to analyse interviews and focus group interviews. I will seek my teachers assistance who can better guide me how and when to use other data analysis techniques. Reading:- My reading skills are adequate; however to improve above mention weaknesses, such as academic writing and critical writing, I intend to read more material. According to Strachan, et al. (2004) searching adequate material for writing is critical. I think I need to improve my reading skills, not in a sense of reading but to look for better and related material. Wolverhampton University provides powerful search engines that are active in searching for relevant materials. I may practice searching and reading to extract relevant material for critical writing. Planning and Mind mapping:- As described by Willis Miertschin (2005), mind mapping is considered as a useful tool for the process of learning. I am very well aware of brainstorming and leaner note taking methods; the concept of mind mapping is new for me. Mind mapping and planning both according to Willis Miertschin (2006) develop a practical approach for a student to evaluate and analyse any subject area I am very interested in learning how to use mind maps and planning techniques in learning. I will seek for the assistance of my teachers assistance while obtaining tutorials for mind mapping and planning methods. Referencing:- As described by Randolph (2009) the authenticity of work is critical to academic writing. Evidence of every statement provided in important, however, I find referencing styles to be very confusing. I intend to learn Harvard Style of referencing. Wolverhampton provides Harvard Referencing guide that is very helpful. In the beginning, I may refer to it regularly with practice I dont need to refer anymore Using data analysis software:- I always consider MS Excel as a very useful tool for data analysis; however data analysis software has been introduced. I find Data analysis software to be interesting; however I still need to understand and learn about it. I want to learn Data analysis software as soon as possible so that I can use it for my researches. The best way to learn software is according to Strachan, et al. (2004) is to explore and play with it. I play and practice its tools and techniques so that I may learn it as soon as possible. Using WOLF:- WOLF is accessible websites, providing knowledge about the course work. Usually, lectures and course work are uploaded on WOLF for easy future reference. I find uploading and downloading assessment related work very easy. My aim is to improve the usage ability and frequency of WOLF website. I will keep on exploring WOLF so that I can be fully aware of the facilities provided by the University. Using Microsoft Office:- I have been using MS Office since long and am very comfortable with it. I still feel I must keep on exploring to learn more tools of MS Office. I will keep on exploring MS Office to look for more tools. Finding academic articles:- Finding academic articles is critical for academic writing and critical writing. It is essential for me to find scholarly articles on academic writing. Also, I need to read many critical notes on related topic. Although I can find items, however, I need to work more on looking for academic articles. My target is to achieve the ability to find satisfactory article number so that I may be able to produce a good academic article. I will practice looking for articles on a regular basis on the topics I have been covering on a daily basis. Personal Reflection This current task aims to produce reflections on the content of the module. According to Dyment and OConnell (2010), personal reflection is helpful for self-assessment. Furthermore, Randolph (2009) observes self-assessment enables an individual to assess personal achievements and improvement opportunities. So far the material I have taken Independent Business Analysis project, which was further comprised of sections such as, research methodology, Development of Masters Skills, Supervision and Project process. The material related to Independent Business analysis is also quite helpful for the completion of the final project. In the following section, I may reflect on each part of Independent business analysis. The section Development of Masters Skills I got an opportunity to learn dissertation writing. O'Reilly (2015) observes literature review to include in-depth analysis of the topic, analysing every aspect of the subject. Although writing essay was not a new concept for me, however, this module assisted me to write according to academic standards. Academic writing concept made me understand that I should thoroughly and extensively study different reading material related to the topic so that I can produce a paper that comprehensively provides subject background. On the other hand, Rofi et al. (2014) defines critical writing to include different aspects and understanding of various scholars. During my attempt at Independent Business analysis, I was amazed to observe conflicting arguments of various scholars, which had both convergence and divergence. Thus critical writing demanded observation of all the concepts, either similar or contradicting. What I also learnt to evaluate and critically write a subject it is important to have enough material. Thus also came to know about looking for academic journals. Initially finding academic journals was a challenge, however now I use keywords to search for appropriate journals and articles. Next comes Referencing, which is considered to be very critical for the teachers. According to Beel et al. (2015) the authenticity of arguments is important while writing academically. Harvard Referencing is very confusing for me due to variations in punctuations and placements, however now I have gained an understanding. Harvard Referencing guide is also very helpful which can be referred on a regular basis to ensure distinct referencing styl e. During the session, I found out that reading for assignment generation is not as easy as reading a novel, it requires the complete understanding of the concept of the topic and furthermore to extract relevant material from different journals. I am although excellent in reading; however task given to me during academic session enabled me to develop reading skills. Despite having adequate material for writing, arranging them to form an academic paper is also a challenging task. Davies (2011) identifies mind mapping to be a useful tool for organizing ideas and concepts. Davies (2011) further observes mind mapping to be better than linear note taking. Mind mapping further provides a graphical form of presentation which is easier to formulate. I tried mind mapping during the attempt of Independent Business analysis and found it absorbing and helpful, however, I still need to work more on it to use it on a regular basis, specifically for the completion of my Final project. Mind mapping and planning both enabled me to organise the material I could collect and then produce a comprehensive, organised and clear paper. During this academic session, we are required to produce a research paper, which may include the selection of a topic for the dissertation, literature writing, collecting data for the research, analysing and finally presenting conclusions and recommendations. Research methodology is considered by Kothari (2004) to be a systematic approach towards conduction of research. Accurate and concise results of research can only be obtained when research is appropriately designed, and the conceptual framework of research has been identified (Bell, 2014). Thus during the current academic session I came to know about the importance of research methodologies. I came to know that selection of appropriate research methodology is significant for fruitful and efficient completion of a study, which is also affirmed by (Bell, 2014). Research methodology is an advanced concept that includes assessment of research approach, research design, data collection, data analysis and development of conclusions. Kothari (2011) considers every aspect of research methodology to be an independent subject. Data collection is far beyond the development of a questionnaire and summarising them, but before evaluating which data collection method to adapt it is important to develop a hypothesis and evaluate which data collection approach shall be suitable for answering that assumption. Approach either selected to be quantitative and qualitative will further identify the method to be adapted, for example, questionnaire, interview or focus group. The topic of my research proposal is analysing challenges for Seeking Investment from Saudi Financial Markets and possible solutions: Analysis of SME Sector KSA. The generation of research design provided me an opportunity to search for the different aspects of research methodology. The approach selected for the topic was both inductive and deductive due requirement of both qualitative and quantitative data. The data of the financial markets will be gathered, that will be interpreted and explained by the investigator; thus, the research design selected was graphic. Botley and Hakim (2014) observes the importance of both primary and secondary data, where primary data is the first-hand data collected by the researcher and secondary data validates, explains and authenticate the received data. The primary data shall be collected through interviews however in-depth study of previous academic data shall be conducted for secondary data. This research may also enable me to develop analysis s kills for interviews. According to Kothari (2011), interviews are summarised and compared with literature for the conclusion. With this module, I also came to know about ethical consideration while writing. According to Weideman et al. (2014), adult students consider themselves to be morally responsible, thus tend to act ethically. Ethical considerations thus refer to attempting and acting ethically towards academic activities. Rmer (2012) believe ethical considerations to be a significant part of theoretical and practical educational activities. McKinley (2013) emphasise the importance of the ability of the students of higher education to select and conduct their research ethically. Concluding I find my academic module to be very helpful. I am very much confident that I may be able to complete successfully my Masters with flying colours due to the unlimited support. Further, the module has been very carefully organised so that the student may be able to develop their abilities gradually so that they may not face any hurdles during the whole academic session. Bibliography Ata, B. A. (2015) From Descriptive to Critical Writing: A Study on the Effectiveness of Advanced Reading and Writing Instruction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 199.p. 620-626. Beel, J., Langer, S., Genzmehr, M. and Gipp, B., 2014. Utilizing Mind-Maps for Information Retrieval and User Modelling. In User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization (pp. 301-313). Springer International Publishing. Beel, J., Langer, S., Kapitsaki, G., Breitinger, C. and Gipp, B., 2015. Exploring the potential of user modeling based on mind maps. In User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization (pp. 3-17). Springer International Publishing. Bell, J. (2014) Doing Your Research Project: A guide for first-time researchers. McGraw-Hill Education (UK). Bernard, H. R. (2011) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 5th ed. Plymouth: Alta Mira Press. Botley, S.P. and Hakim, F., 2014. Argument structure in learner writing: a corpus-based analysis using argument mapping. Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011) Business Research Methodology. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Cooper, D. and Schindler, P. S. (2010) Business Research Methods, 11th ed. London: McGra-Hill Crouch, C. and Pearce, J. (2012) Doing Research in Design - Page 68, 2nd ed. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. Crowther, D. and Lancaster, G. (2012) Research Methods, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. Davies, M. (2011) Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: what are the differences and do they matter?. Higher education. 62(3).p. 279-301. Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. Page 271, 4th ed. London: Sage Publications. Dul, J. and Hak, T. (2012) Case Study Methodology in Business Research, 3rd ed. Oxford: Elsevier Dyment, J. E., OConnell, T. S. (2010) The quality of reflection in student journals: A review of limiting and enabling factors. Innovative Higher Education. 35(4).p. 233-244. Gonye, J., Mareva, R., Dudu, W. T., Sibanda, J. (2012) Academic writing challenges at Universities in Zimbabwe: A case study of Great Zimbabwe University. Journal of English and Literature. 3(3).p. 71-83. Gummerson, E. (2010) Qualitative methods in management research, 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Hair, J. F. and Money, A. H. (2011) Essentials of Business Research Methods, 2nd ed. New York: M. E. Sharpe. Inc. Hesse-Biber, S. N (2010) Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory With Practice, 3ed ed. New York: Guilford Publications Kothari, C. R. (2004) Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International. McKinley, J., 2013. Displaying critical thinking in EFL academic writing: A discussion of Japanese to English contrastive rhetoric. RELC Journal, 44(2), pp.195-208. O'Reilly, C., 2015. Mind Mapping: Overcoming Problems of Writer Identity and Convention for Academic Writing by Student Collaboration. Randolph, J. J. (2009) A guide to writing the dissertation literature review. Practical Assessment, Research Evaluation. 14(13), pp 2-7. Rofii, A., Rukmini, D. and Hartono, R., 2014. Improving Studentsmotivation In Writing Descriptive Texts By Using The Mind Mapping Technique. English Education Journal, 4(2). Rmer, U., 2012. Corpora and teaching academic writing: Exploring the pedagogical potential of MICUSP. Weideman, A., Patterson, R. and Pot, A., 2014. Construct refinement in tests of academic literacy. In AAAL 2014 colloquium on Exploring post-admission language assessments in universities internationally, Portland, Oregon.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Teaching Critical And Contextual Studies In Art, Craft And Design Essay Paper Example For Students

Teaching Critical And Contextual Studies In Art, Craft And Design Essay Paper Critical studies is now an accepted abbreviated term for those parts of the art and design curriculum that embrace art history, aesthetic theories and the social, economical, political, religious and numerous other contexts within which the practice of art and design, exists, develops and fulfils its purposes. (Thistlewood, 1989. pg viii)Although critical and contextual studies has its own place, referred to as understanding within the programme of study for art, teachers should realise the opportunities of using critical studies to inform the childrens own work in terms of investigating and making.Childrens making is clearly enriched through their studying the work of other artists and designers in much the same way that their language is supported through reading the work of many storytellers and poets.'(Clement 1992, pg.9)There are so many ways in which teachers can use the work of Artists to engage a response off children and inform their making. We will write a custom essay on Teaching Critical And Contextual Studies In Art, Craft And Design Paper specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now General discussions, questioning and talking, especially at key stage 1 can stimulate curiosity and interest about works of art, where as specific questioning at key stage 2 may encourage the children to give more thought about a particular piece of art work. The introduction of the National Curriculum placed an important emphasis on understanding in art, stressing that childrens understanding of art, craft and design should be encouraged and developed through teaching them about: * visual and tactile elements, including colour, pattern and texture, line and tone, shape, form and space * materials and processes used in making art, craft and design* differences and similarities in the work of artists, craftspeople and designers in different times and cultures .

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

History of the Answering Machine Essays

History of the Answering Machine Essays History of the Answering Machine Paper History of the Answering Machine Paper be cause ATT did little, if anything at all, to encourage them CA Second Try, 2006). So some organizations began to run their own private telephone or telegraph systems. For example, in 1 926, the Columbia Company, which manufactured dedication office equipment, announced its Telecoms, an electric telephone r accorder. (Telephone Recording Finds, 2006). ATT started to evaluate these devices and received request from customers to use them. However, they decided not to allow ordinary consumers to install t machines on its public network. However, demand for telephone answering machine use grew and in 1 930, ATT modified its rules. They allowed the use of the Tell cord in conjunction with a Private Branch Exchange a small switchboard installed in office buildings. Yet the answering machine use was restricted, expensive, and unpin popular with users (Telephone Recording Finds, 2006). Despite problems in the US. , in 1 935, Wily Mueller invented the first complete automatic answering machine. It stood three foot tall and therefore didnt pro did much practicality. However, it did prove very popular amongst Orthodox Jews would couldnt take calls on the Sabbath (Verna, 2012). Europe however was moving much more rapidly in the industry. In 1 936, a SW company introduced a commercially successful answering machine called the Siphon. The Siphon recorded sound magnetically on steel tape. However, it was not a machine for the individual or home it was much too expensive. When users of the Sop hon. wanted to retrieve their messages, they dialed the machine to the central off CE and retrieved their calls using a crude form of voice recognition. Owing to its high price, the Siphon managed to only survive for a short while, but led to more refined IM provisions 8 (Verna, 2012). Back in the United States, the first commercial answering machine was launch De in the year 1949. It was known as the Talented and recorded incoming mess ages and played them back on a magnetic wire. It was priced at about $200 and WA s unable to capture the market due to its high price (Verna, 2012). Due to inventions like the Talented, AT started looking for alternatives. They developed a technology in 1 936 that allowed customers to forward calls to a whiteboard where live operators could take calls and write down messages. I interesting enough, AT had been developing sound recording technology since the 192 Cos. They just didnt like the technology because if the public could record calls easily, the e sense of privacy in communication would be lost, and business would decline (AT Its Response, 2006). In 1 958, ITT introduced its Codename business answering machine, and in 1961 offered a lowing price for small business and individuals. It sold very we II in the U. S. To independent telephone companies, which covered a lot of customers ( Non ATT, 2006). The year 1960 was a significant turn of events with the invention of the first commercially successful answering machine known as the Seafood. Invented by DRP. Kazoo Hashishs, it was very compact and sophisticated (Verna, 2012). In 1 962, Robotics Inc. Of New York introduced the Robinsons Secretary, another inexpensive databases answering machine. In 1 963, they introduced the Recording which featured remote message retrieval (Non ATT, 2006). 9 Back in Europe at this time (the mid sasss), developments were moving more slowly and the size of the U. S. Answering machine market was bigger than Euro peps (Non ATT, 2006). By the 1 asss, inexpensive and imported telephones became popular and ma were installed in American homes. At about the same time telephones were b common cheap, so were answering machines and they were becoming more convenience NT to use due to the appearance of inexpensive microelectronics. Answering machines cost only from about $1 25600. The low costing answering machines became more CEO inimical to buy than to rent and sales of them began to grow and reached 400,000 in 1 978 (Answering Machines in, 2006) An example of such an inexpensive answering machine was the Phonated which was introduced in 1 971. It was specifically designed to meet the needs home and weighed only ten pounds and held up to 20 messages on tape (Ever mar 2012). The sasss brought the emergence of the cell phone and their built Voice feature, which in turn, brought the decline of the answering machine. On top of that, many telephone providers offered inexpensive and centralized biochemical as a standard feature in home telephone lines (Verna, 2012). Since the sasss, the number of households with answering machines has declined about 50% in the U. S. (The Triumph of the, 2006).

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Voyager Mission

The Voyager Mission In 1979, two tiny spacecraft were launched on one-way missions of planetary discovery. They were the twin  Voyager spacecraft, predecessors to the  Cassini spacecraft at Saturn, the Juno mission at Jupiter, and the New Horizons mission to Pluto and beyond. They were preceded in gas giant space by the Pioneers 10 and 11. The Voyagers, which are still transmitting data back to Earth as they leave the solar system, each  carry an array of cameras and instruments designed to  record magnetic, atmospheric, and other data about the planets and their moons, and to send images and data for further study back on Earth.   Voyagers Trips Voyager 1 is speeding along at about 57,600 kph (35,790 mph), which is  fast enough to travel from Earth to the Sun three and a half times in one year. Voyager 2 is   Both spacecraft  carry a gold record greeting to the universe  containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The two-spacecraft Voyager missions were designed to replace original plans for a Grand Tour of the planets that would have used four complex spacecraft to explore the five outer planets during the late 1970s. NASA canceled the plan in 1972 and instead proposed to send two spacecraft to Jupiter and Saturn in 1977. They were  designed to explore the two gas giants in more detail than the two Pioneers (Pioneers 10 and 11) that preceded them. The Voyager Design and Trajectory The original design of the two spacecraft was based on that of the older Mariners (such as Mariner 4, which went to Mars). Power was provided by three plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted at the end of a boom. Voyager 1 was launched after Voyager 2, but because of a faster route, it exited the Asteroid Belt earlier than its twin. Both spacecraft got gravitational assists at each planet they passed, which aligned them for their next targets.   Voyager 1 began its Jovian imaging mission in April 1978 at a range of 265 million kilometers from the planet; images sent back by January the following year indicated that Jupiters atmosphere was more turbulent than during the Pioneer flybys in 1973 and 1974. Voyager Studies Jupiters Moons On February 10, 1979, the spacecraft crossed into the Jovian moon system, and in early March, it had already discovered a thin (less than 30 kilometers thick) ring circling Jupiter. Flying past Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (in that order) on March 5th, Voyager 1 returned spectacular photos of these worlds. The more interesting find was on Io, where images showed a bizarre yellow, orange and brown world with a least eight active volcanoes spewing material into space, making it one of the most (if not the most) geologically active planetary bodies in the solar system. The spacecraft also discovered two new moons, Thebe and Metis. Voyager 1s closest encounter with Jupiter was at 12:05 UT on March 5, 1979, at a range of 280,000 kilometers. On to Saturn Following the Jupiter encounter, Voyager 1 completed a single course correction on April 89 1979, in preparation for its rendezvous with Saturn. The second correction on October 10, 1979, ensured that the spacecraft would not hit Saturns moon Titan. Its flyby of the Saturn system in November 1979 was as spectacular as its previous encounter. Exploring Saturns Icy Moons Voyager 1 found five new moons and a ring system consisting of thousands of bands, discovered a new ring (the G  Ring), and found shepherding satellites on either side of the F-ring satellites that keep the rings well defined. During its flyby, the spacecraft photographed Saturns moons Titan, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. Based on incoming data, all the moons appeared to be largely composed of water ice. Perhaps the most interesting target was Titan, which Voyager 1 passed at 05:41 UT on  November 12th at a range of 4,000 kilometers. Images showed a thick atmosphere that completely hid the surface. The spacecraft found that the moons atmosphere was composed of 90 percent nitrogen. Pressure and temperature at the surface were 1.6 atmospheres and -180 ° C, respectively. Voyager 1s closest approach to Saturn was at 23:45 UT on November 12,  1980, at a range of 124,000 kilometers. Voyager 2 followed up with visits to Jupiter in 1979, Saturn in 1981, Uranus in 1986, and Neptune in 1986. Like its sister ship, it investigated planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, gravitational fields, and climates, and discovered fascinating facts about the moons of all the planets. Voyager 2 also was the first to visit all four gas giant planets. Outward Bound Because of the specific requirements for  the Titan flyby, the spacecraft was not directed to Uranus and Neptune. Instead,  following the encounter with Saturn, Voyager 1 headed on a trajectory out of the solar system at a speed of 3.5 AU per year. It is on a course 35 ° out of the ecliptic plane to the north, in the general direction of the Suns motion relative to nearby stars. It is now in interstellar space, having passed through the  heliopause boundary, the outer limit of the Suns magnetic field, and the outward flow of the solar wind. Its the first spacecraft from Earth to travel into interstellar space. On February 17, 1998, Voyager 1  became the most distant human-made object in existence when it surpassed Pioneer 10s range from Earth. In mid-2016, the  Voyager 1  was more than  20 billion kilometers from Earth (135 times the Sun-Earth distance) and continuing to move away, while maintaining a tenuous radio link with Earth. Its power supply should last through 2025, allowing the transmitter to keep sending back information about the interstellar environment. Voyager 2 is on a trajectory headed out toward the star Ross 248, which it will encounter in about 40,000 years, and pass by Sirius in just under 300,000 years. It will keep transmitting as long as it has power, which may also be until the year 2025.   Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

The Voyager Mission

The Voyager Mission In 1979, two tiny spacecraft were launched on one-way missions of planetary discovery. They were the twin  Voyager spacecraft, predecessors to the  Cassini spacecraft at Saturn, the Juno mission at Jupiter, and the New Horizons mission to Pluto and beyond. They were preceded in gas giant space by the Pioneers 10 and 11. The Voyagers, which are still transmitting data back to Earth as they leave the solar system, each  carry an array of cameras and instruments designed to  record magnetic, atmospheric, and other data about the planets and their moons, and to send images and data for further study back on Earth.   Voyagers Trips Voyager 1 is speeding along at about 57,600 kph (35,790 mph), which is  fast enough to travel from Earth to the Sun three and a half times in one year. Voyager 2 is   Both spacecraft  carry a gold record greeting to the universe  containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The two-spacecraft Voyager missions were designed to replace original plans for a Grand Tour of the planets that would have used four complex spacecraft to explore the five outer planets during the late 1970s. NASA canceled the plan in 1972 and instead proposed to send two spacecraft to Jupiter and Saturn in 1977. They were  designed to explore the two gas giants in more detail than the two Pioneers (Pioneers 10 and 11) that preceded them. The Voyager Design and Trajectory The original design of the two spacecraft was based on that of the older Mariners (such as Mariner 4, which went to Mars). Power was provided by three plutonium oxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted at the end of a boom. Voyager 1 was launched after Voyager 2, but because of a faster route, it exited the Asteroid Belt earlier than its twin. Both spacecraft got gravitational assists at each planet they passed, which aligned them for their next targets.   Voyager 1 began its Jovian imaging mission in April 1978 at a range of 265 million kilometers from the planet; images sent back by January the following year indicated that Jupiters atmosphere was more turbulent than during the Pioneer flybys in 1973 and 1974. Voyager Studies Jupiters Moons On February 10, 1979, the spacecraft crossed into the Jovian moon system, and in early March, it had already discovered a thin (less than 30 kilometers thick) ring circling Jupiter. Flying past Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto (in that order) on March 5th, Voyager 1 returned spectacular photos of these worlds. The more interesting find was on Io, where images showed a bizarre yellow, orange and brown world with a least eight active volcanoes spewing material into space, making it one of the most (if not the most) geologically active planetary bodies in the solar system. The spacecraft also discovered two new moons, Thebe and Metis. Voyager 1s closest encounter with Jupiter was at 12:05 UT on March 5, 1979, at a range of 280,000 kilometers. On to Saturn Following the Jupiter encounter, Voyager 1 completed a single course correction on April 89 1979, in preparation for its rendezvous with Saturn. The second correction on October 10, 1979, ensured that the spacecraft would not hit Saturns moon Titan. Its flyby of the Saturn system in November 1979 was as spectacular as its previous encounter. Exploring Saturns Icy Moons Voyager 1 found five new moons and a ring system consisting of thousands of bands, discovered a new ring (the G  Ring), and found shepherding satellites on either side of the F-ring satellites that keep the rings well defined. During its flyby, the spacecraft photographed Saturns moons Titan, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea. Based on incoming data, all the moons appeared to be largely composed of water ice. Perhaps the most interesting target was Titan, which Voyager 1 passed at 05:41 UT on  November 12th at a range of 4,000 kilometers. Images showed a thick atmosphere that completely hid the surface. The spacecraft found that the moons atmosphere was composed of 90 percent nitrogen. Pressure and temperature at the surface were 1.6 atmospheres and -180 ° C, respectively. Voyager 1s closest approach to Saturn was at 23:45 UT on November 12,  1980, at a range of 124,000 kilometers. Voyager 2 followed up with visits to Jupiter in 1979, Saturn in 1981, Uranus in 1986, and Neptune in 1986. Like its sister ship, it investigated planetary atmospheres, magnetospheres, gravitational fields, and climates, and discovered fascinating facts about the moons of all the planets. Voyager 2 also was the first to visit all four gas giant planets. Outward Bound Because of the specific requirements for  the Titan flyby, the spacecraft was not directed to Uranus and Neptune. Instead,  following the encounter with Saturn, Voyager 1 headed on a trajectory out of the solar system at a speed of 3.5 AU per year. It is on a course 35 ° out of the ecliptic plane to the north, in the general direction of the Suns motion relative to nearby stars. It is now in interstellar space, having passed through the  heliopause boundary, the outer limit of the Suns magnetic field, and the outward flow of the solar wind. Its the first spacecraft from Earth to travel into interstellar space. On February 17, 1998, Voyager 1  became the most distant human-made object in existence when it surpassed Pioneer 10s range from Earth. In mid-2016, the  Voyager 1  was more than  20 billion kilometers from Earth (135 times the Sun-Earth distance) and continuing to move away, while maintaining a tenuous radio link with Earth. Its power supply should last through 2025, allowing the transmitter to keep sending back information about the interstellar environment. Voyager 2 is on a trajectory headed out toward the star Ross 248, which it will encounter in about 40,000 years, and pass by Sirius in just under 300,000 years. It will keep transmitting as long as it has power, which may also be until the year 2025.   Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.